## What are operators in R?

Operators in R are symbols or keywords that perform specific operations on data

## Categories of Operators in R

Arithmetic operators

Assignment operators

Comparison operators

Logical operators

Miscellaneous operators

## Arithmetic Operators

Name | Operator | Example |
---|---|---|

Addition | + | A + B |

Subtraction | – | A-B |

Multiplication | * | A*B |

Division | / | A/B |

Exponent | ^ | A^B |

Modulus | %% | A %%B |

Integer | %/% | A%/%B |

a <- 5

b <- 3

**# Addition**

sum <- a + b

**# Subtraction**

difference <- a – b

**# Multiplication**

product <- a * b

**# Division**

quotient <- a / b

**# Exponentiation**

power <- a^b

## Assignment Operators

Are used to assign values to variables and vectors.

`<-`

and `=`

# Using `<-`

operator

x <- 10

# Using `=`

operator

y = 20

Global Assignment

<<-

# Assigning a value to a variable in the global environment

my_global <- function() {

x <<- 30

}

## R Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements:

R Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements:

## R Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements:

Operator | Description |
---|---|

& or && | Element-wise Logical AND operator. Returns TRUE if both elements are TRUE |

| or || | Elementwise- Logical OR operator. Returns TRUE if one of the statement is TRUE |

! | Logical NOT – returns FALSE if statement is TRUE |

### Logical Operator Examples

`is_sunny <- TRUE`

is_warm <- FALSE

# Negation

not_sunny <- !is_sunny

# Logical AND

both_sunny_and_warm <- is_sunny & is_warm

# Logical OR

either_sunny_or_warm <- is_sunny | is_warm

## Comparison Operators

<, >, <=, >=, ==, !=

Comparison operators are used to compare values.

p <- 10

q <- 5

# Less than

less_than <- p < q

# Greater than

greater_than <- p > q

# Less than or equal to

less_than_equal <- p <= q

# Greater than or equal to

greater_than_equal <- p >= q

# Equal to

equal_to <- p == q

# Not equal to

not_equal_to <- p != q

## Membership Operators

%in%

The %in% operator checks if an element is present in a vector.

`fruits <- c("apple", "banana", "cherry")`

# Check if “banana” is in the vector

is_banana_present <- “banana” %in% fruits

## Concatenation Operators

c()

The c() operator is used to concatenate vectors.

`first_vector <- c(1, 2, 3)`

second_vector <- c(4, 5, 6)

# Concatenate the vectors

combined_vector <- c(first_vector, second_vector)